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 CLAUSE LEVEL

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Male Jumlah posting : 39
Registration date : 28.01.09

PostSubyek: CLAUSE LEVEL   Wed Jan 28, 2009 11:35 pm

(ini kusalin dari flasdih temanku lalu kutempel di sini. tugas kuliahnya nampaknya)


A.Definition and Types of Clause
a.Definition of Clause
According to Cook (1969:65), the clause level is that level that is below the sentence level and above the phrase level the clause is composed of words phrases and, in turn, fill slots at the sentence level. It is a unit of grammar.
Elson and Picket (1962:62) define “The clause as a string of tagmemes that consists of or includes one and only one predicate, or predicate – like tagmeme, in the string, and whose manifesting morpheme, sequence typically fill slots at the sentence level.”
b.Clause Types
1.Independent Clauses
An independent clause is a clause that can stand alone as a major sentence. Based on their internal structure, both independent and dependent caluses can be classified into :
a.Transitive clauses
b.Intransitive clauses
c.Equational clauses
2.Dependent Clauses
A dependent clause is a clause that cannot stand alone as a major sentence, dependent clauses can be classified into :
a.Nominal clauses
b.Adjectival clauses
c.Adverbial clauses
A.Transitive clauses:
Are clauses whose predicates are filled by transitive verbs namely, verbs that must take direct objects, like visit, write, read, play, speak, love, etc.
Example:


B.Intransitive clauses
Are clauses whose predicates are filled by intransitive verbs, namely, verbs taking no direct objects, like works, go, sit, stand, rest, talk, laugh, come, look, atc.
Example:

C.Equative clauses
Are clauses whose predicates are filled by equative verbs, like be, become, grow, seem, appear, look, remain, feel, smell, taste, sound, etc.
Example:

D.Nominal clauses
Are dependent clause that function or act like nouns. They can fill the subject, object, or complement slots at the clause level. Nominal clauses can be transitive, intransitive, or equative clauses.
Example :

Commonly introduced by relaters like what, where, who, why, that, etc.
E.Adjectival clauses
Adjectival clauses are dependent clauses that function like adjectives. They can fill the modifier slot at the phrase level.
Example:

F.Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses that function as adverbs. They fill slots adverbs, namely, the slots of location, time, temporal, manner, reason, and purpose.
I.Place / Location clause
The place/ location clause slot fill the location slot, generally introduced by the relater where.
Example :
II.Time or temporal clause occupies the temporal slot, commonly introduced by the relater when, while, before/after.
Example :

III.Manner clause
Manner clause fills the manner slot, generally introduced by the relater as, like, or as if.
Example :

IV.Reason clause
The reason clause occupies the reason slot. Generally introduced by the relater because, since/for.
Example :

V.Purpose clause
Purpose clause occupies the purpose slot, commonly introduced by the relater so that, in order that, or in case.
Example :

VI.Conditional clause
The conditional clause occupies the conditional slot. Commonly introduced by the relater if / unless.
Example:

PHRASE LEVEL

A.Definition and Types of Phrase
1.Definition of Phrase
According to Cook (1969:9) ;
“ The phrase level is that level that is below the clause level and above the word level.”
The phrase is composed of words and typically fill slots at the clause level phrases. Are word groups that fill the same slots at clause level as are filled by single words.
Elson and Picket (1963:73) define ;
“ The phrase as a unit composed of two or more words potentially. Which doesn’t have the characteristics of clause, and typically, but not always, fill slots on the clause level.”
Based on this definition, the phrase has three main features.
1.The phrase typically fill slots on the clause level.
2.The phrase doesn’t have the characteristics of a clause, and
3.The phrase consists of two or more words.
2.Phrase types
There are two criteria that can be used to classify phrases;
4.According to the types to the relationship of elements in the structure.
5.According to the types of words that become the heads of the structure.
According to the relationship of elements in the structure, phrases can be classified into:
(a)Exocentric Phrases
An exocentric phrase is a phrase that has a complementary distribution with its elements. This means that no elements can substitute the whole phrase. In other words, an exocentric phrase is a non-centered phrase. An exocentric phrase has two elements the relater and Axis. The relater can be filled by a preposition, and the axis can be filled by a word or word group. An exocentric phrase is commonly called a relater – axis phrase. Such as;
about
above
across
after
against
among
around
at
before
in
into
of
on
out
over
during
with
by
etc.
(b)Endocentric Phrases
a.Modifier – Head or Attributive phrases
A modifier – head is a phrase consisting of only one head word, the head word may be a noun, a verb, and adjective, of an adverb.
1.Noun phrase
A noun phrase is a word group with noun as its head. It may consists of a determiner slot filled by an article, a possessive pronoun, a numeral, or a demonstrative, and a head slot filled by a noun.
Examples:
A man, the student, his book, one book, many students.
A modifier slot filled by an adjective / noun, and head slot filled by a noun.
Example:
A clever student, the young man, his good character, the table leg, the interesting film.
A head slot filled by a noun, and another modifier slot filled by a relater – axist phrase or a clause.
Example:
2.Verb phrases
A verb phrase is a word group with verb as its head. A verb phrase consists of modifier slot filled by an auxiliary and a head filled by a verb.
Example:
A head slot filled by a verb may be preceded by two or more modifier slots filled by auxiliaries.
Example:
3.Adjective phrases
An adjective phrase is a word group with adjective as its head. This head is commonly preceded by an intensifier as a modifier.
Example:
Very beautiful, quite calm, somewhat interesting, a bit noisy, etc.
4.Adverb phrases
An adverb phrase is a word group with adverb as its head which can be preceded by intensifier.
Example:
b.Multiple – Head Phrases
A multiple head phrase is aphrase having more than one head word. The head may be single words or phrase.
1.Appositive Phrase
An appositive phrase is a heads phrase have the same referent or is a phrase consisting or two and only two head slots filled by nouns or noun phrases. These two tagmemes have the same referent and aren’t joined by the connector tagmeme. The first tagmme is called the item tagmeme and the second called appositive tagmeme. Commonly its called the item – appositive phrase. (IA)
Example:

2.Coordinate phrase
A coordinate phrase called if the heads have not the same referent. A phrase consists of two or more heads usually joined by a connector. The connectors commonly used are as follows:
And both …. and
But not …. But
Not neither … nor
Or either …. Or
Rather than rather … than
Coordinate phrase can be classified according to the types of words that become the heads into:
a.Coordinate noun phrase
b.Coordinate Verb phrase
c.Coordinate adjective phrase
d.Adverb phrase
Phrase Structure Formulas
A.Exocentric Phrase
RA = + Rel : rel + Axis : n /N
Read : A relater – axis phrase consists of a relater slot filled by a relater and axis slot filled by a noun or noun phrase.
B.Endocentric Phrase
1.Modifier – Head Phrase
a.Noun phrases
N =  Det : art / pos / num / demon  mod1 : adj / Adj / n + H : n  Mod2 : RA / clause
=  det : art / num / pos / demon  mod : adj / n + H : n
=  Det : art / num / pos / demon + H : n
b.Verb phrases
V =  Aux : aux + H : V
=  Aux1 : aux  Aux2 : aux + H : V
=  Aux1 : aux  Aux2 ; aux + Aux3 : Aux + H : V
c.Adjective phrase
Adj =  int : int + H : adj
d.Adverb phrase
Adv =  Int + it : adv
2.Appositive Phrases
IA = + It : n/N + App : n/N
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